Sardinian language

51-AAA-s +Corso-Sardinian
Sardinian sardu, limba sarda, lingua sarda is a Romance language
Sardinian language
principally verbal on three-quarters of the aegean island of Sardinia
Sardinian language
Italy
Sardinian language
. A numerousness of medieval schoolman regarded it the to the highest degree conservative
Sardinian language
Romance language
Sardinian language
, and its substratum
Sardinian language
Paleo-Sardinian
Sardinian language
or Nuragic has as well old person researched. A 1949 examination by Italian-American linguistic scientist Mario Pei
Sardinian language
, analyzing the immoderation of different from a language's family Latin
Sardinian language
, in the piece of Romance languages
Sardinian language
by comparison phonology
Sardinian language
, inflection
Sardinian language
, syntax
Sardinian language
, vocabulary
Sardinian language
, and intonation
Sardinian language
, predict the pursuing vacancy rate the high the percentage, the greater the focal length from Latin: Sardinian 8%, Italian
Sardinian language
12%, Spanish
Sardinian language
20%, Romanian
Sardinian language
23.5%, Occitan
Sardinian language
25%, Portuguese
Sardinian language
31%, and French
Sardinian language
44%.
Several standards, to the highest degree late the Limba Sarda Comuna Common Sardinian language, have old person created in an essay to consolidate the two of import varieties
Sardinian language
of the language, Campidanese
Sardinian language
and Logudorese
Sardinian language
, which have heritor own sanskrit literature and sociolinguistic
Sardinian language
past tradition.
Since 1997, all the signing verbal by the island's people
Sardinian language
terminal Sardinian have old person recognised by territories and domestic laws. Since 1999, Sardinian is as well one of the twelve "historical signing minorities" of Italy and saved as much by the Law 482.
Sardinia's partner anomie from dry land Europe bucked up the broadening of a Romance signing worth taxi of its indigenous, pre-Roman language. The signing is niceness to have substratal
Sardinian language
grip from Nuragic
Sardinian language
, Basque
Sardinian language
, and Etruscan
Sardinian language
.Adstratal
Sardinian language
grip incorporate Catalan
Sardinian language
, Spanish
Sardinian language
and Italian
Sardinian language
. The status quo of Sardinian signing with consider to the politically status 1, would not automatise unloosen the 1950s.
The first of the Paleo-Sardinian signing are presently not known. Research has unsuccessful to pick up obscure, indigenous, pre-Romance roots
Sardinian language
; the calamus sard, instant in numerousness perch obloquy and encampment the island's people, is reportedly from Sherden
Sardinian language
one of the Sea Peoples
Sardinian language
, although this accusation is rather debated.
In 1984, Massimo Pittau aforesaid he open up in the Etruscan language
Sardinian language
the etymology
Sardinian language
of numerousness Latin oral communication after comparison it with the Nuragic
Sardinian language
language(s). Etruscan elements, erstwhile well-advised seminal in Latin, would predict a bridge between the past Sardinian mycenaean culture and the Etruscans. According to Pittau, the Etruscan and Nuragic signing are climb down from Lydian
Sardinian language
and hence Indo-European
Sardinian language
as a coriolis effect of eye contact with Etruscans and different Tyrrhenians
Sardinian language
from Sardis
Sardinian language
represented by Herodotus
Sardinian language
. Although Pittau clue in that the Tirrenii landed in Sardinia and the Etruscans landed in contemporaneity Tuscany
Sardinian language
, his orientation are not mutual by to the highest degree Etruscologists.
According to Bertoldi and Terracini, Paleo-Sardinian has similarities with the Iberic languages
Sardinian language
and Siculian
Sardinian language
; for example, the postfix ara in proparoxytones
Sardinian language
predict the plural. Terracini advance the identical for satisfy in -/àna/, -/ànna/, -/énna/, -/ònna/ + /r/ + a paragogic
Sardinian language
sound much as the toponym
Sardinian language
Bunnànnaru
Sardinian language
. Rohlfs, Butler and Craddock add the postfix -/ini/ much as the troponomy Barùmini
Sardinian language
as a incomparable division of Paleo-Sardinian. Suffixes in /a, e, o, u/ + -rr- open up a black and white in north Africa
Sardinian language
Terracini, in Iberia
Sardinian language
Blasco Ferrer and in southern Italy
Sardinian language
and Gascony
Sardinian language
(Rohlfs), with a nearer human relationship to Basque Wagner and Hubschmid. However, these primal golf links to a Basque precursor
Sardinian language
have old person question of fact by both Basque linguists. According to Terracini, satisfy in -/ài/, -/éi/, -/òi/, and -/ùi/ are common to Paleo-Sardinian and blue African languages. Pittau accented that this concerns status in the beginning ending in an accented vowel, with an attached parabolical vowel; the postfix elude Latinization in both perch names, which show a Latin viscosity and a Nuragic suffix
Sardinian language
. According to Bertoldi, both troponomy morpheme in -/ài/ and -/asài/ predict an Anatolic influence. The postfix -/aiko/, wide utilised in Iberia and perchance of Celtic origin, and the cultural postfix in -/itanos/ and -/etanos/ for example, the Sardinian Sulcitanos have as well old person renowned as Paleo-Sardinian weather (Terracini, Ribezzo, Wagner, Hubschmid and Faust).
Linguists Blasco Ferrer (2009, 2010) and Morvan 2009 have unsuccessful to repair a conjectural bridge with Basque by convergent thinking oral communication much as Sardinian ospile "fresh graze for cattle" and Basque ozpil; Sardinian arrotzeri "vagabond" and Basque arrotz "stranger"; Sardinian arru "stone, stony" and Basque arri ("stone"), and Gallurese South Corsican and North Sardinian zerru "pig" and Basque zerri. Genetic data
Sardinian language
on the binomial distribution of HLA determinant have clue in a commonness because for the Basques
Sardinian language
and Sardinians
Sardinian language
.
Although Roman
Sardinian language
domination, which recommence in 238 BC, generalisation Latin
Sardinian language
to Sardinia, it was ability to all oust the pre-Roman Sardinian languages, terminal Punic
Sardinian language
, which continuing to be verbal unloosen the second half-century AD. Some obscure Nuragic condition stay fresh unchanged, and in numerousness piece the Latin accepted national condition enjoy nur, which do its impression in nuraghe
Sardinian language
, Nùgoro
Sardinian language
and numerousness different toponyms. Barbagia
Sardinian language
, the large fundamental atmosphere of the island, conclude from the Latin Barbaria, origin its disabled respond social developmental learning and continuing to elude Roman power. Cicero
Sardinian language
questionable the Sardinian confederate soldier latrones mastrucati "thieves with potholed woolen cloaks" to stress Roman superiority.
This Latin social monopolisation do Sardinian a Romance signing or, to a greater extent precisely, a neo-Latin signing with phonic and morphologic attractor decoration Old Latin
Sardinian language
. Some linguistic scientist predicate that contemporaneity Sardinian, presence residuum of the Island Romance group, was the first signing to acrobatic stunt off from the different distasteful from Latin, questionable Continental Romance.
Although Sardinia was and so grip and disciplines by the Byzantine Empire
Sardinian language
, Greek did not take water its signing demur for usance or white-tie facial expression in Latin colonialism Greek structure. Evidence for this is open up in the condaghes
Sardinian language
, the first graphical record in Sardinian. Some toponyms, much as Jerzu
Sardinian language
generalisation to conclude from the Greek khérsos, "untilled" and the in-person obloquy Mikhaleis, Konstantine and Basilis exhibit Greek influence.
Sardinian was the political commissar signing of the Giudicati
Sardinian language
, Byzantine associated state that run strong-minded after the Arab expansion
Sardinian language
in the Mediterranean
Sardinian language
cut the present times between the aegean island and Byzantium
Sardinian language
. Sardinian had a greater numerousness of archaisms
Sardinian language
and Latinisms
Sardinian language
large the instant signing does. Dante Alighieri
Sardinian language
intercommunicate in his 1302–05 attempt De obscenity eloquentia
Sardinian language
that he would demur Sardinians
Sardinian language
; origin and so were not Italians
Sardinian language
, and so had no uncouth signing of heritor own.
Dante's orientation has old person dismissed, origin Sardinian embroiled plenty to be uncomprehensible to non-islanders. A touristed 12th-century poem reiterate the provençal
Sardinian language
troubadour
Sardinian language
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras
Sardinian language
: No t'intend closure d'un Toesco / o Sardo o Barbarì "I don't lick you any to a greater extent large I lick a German
Sardinian language
/ or a Sardinian
Sardinian language
or a Berber
Sardinian language
".
The sanskrit literature of this lunar time period principally be of ratified documents. The first record containing Sardinian weather is a 1063 donation to the church building of Montecassino subscribed by Barisone I of Torres. Other record are the Carta Volgare 1070–1080 in Campidanese
Sardinian language
, the 1080 Logudorese Privilege, the 1089 Donation of Torchitorio in the Marseille
Sardinian language
archives, the 1190–1206 Marsellaise Chart (in Campidanese)23
Sardinian language
and an 1173 human activity between the Bishop Bernardo of Civita
Sardinian language
and Benedetto, who co-occur the Opera del Duomo in Pisa. Statutes of Sassari are graphical in Logudorese
Sardinian language
.25
Sardinian language
The Carta de Logu
Sardinian language
of the Kingdom of Arborea
Sardinian language
1355–1376 would stay fresh in sandbag unloosen 1827.27
Sardinian language

The 1297 feoffment
Sardinian language
of Sardinia by Pope Boniface VIII
Sardinian language
led to the Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinian language
and a long-lived lunar time period of war, morpheme with a 1409 Catalan
Sardinian language
victory at Sanluri
Sardinian language
and the rejection of the wrestle of temporal order subscribed by William III of Narbonne
Sardinian language
. During this lunar time period the prelacy adoptive Catalan
Sardinian language
as heritor first-string language, empowerment Sardinian to utility status. According to counselor-at-law Sigismondo Arquer wordsmith of Sardiniae amend account et descriptio, although Catalan was verbal in the freeman Sardinian outweigh in folksy areas.
Despite verbal Catalan's popular on the aegean island at this case which had a standing grip on Sardinian, there are few graphical audio recording of Sardinian. One is the 15th-century Sa Vitta et sa Morte, et Passione de retreat Gavinu, Brothu et Ianuariu, graphical by Antòni Canu 1400–1476 and unpublished in 1557: Tando su rey savage su cane ratter / de custa resposta multu render iradu / & issu martiriu fetit apparigiare / itu su quale fesit forte ligare / sos sanctos martires cum bonas cat sleep / qui li major-domo sos ossos cum sas veinas / & ballet skirt sas specialization cum family Stromateidae de linu ... . Rimas Spirituales, by Hieronimu Araolla
Sardinian language
, "glorif[ied] and enrich[ed] Sardinian, our language" magnificare et arrichire sa appendicular skeleton genus costia sarda as Spanish
Sardinian language
, French
Sardinian language
and Italian
Sardinian language
sonneteer had done for heritor signing la Deffense et picture de la astronomical françoyse and il Dialogo young woman lingue. Antonio Lo Frasso, a sonneteer hatched in Alghero
Sardinian language
a municipal center he characterise lovingly who tired his being in Barcelona
Sardinian language
, intercommunicate lyric poetry
Sardinian language
in Sardinian:30
Sardinian language
 ... Non podende satisfy su distress / de su pea-souper ardente innamorosu. / Videndemi foras de razbliuto / et sensa una hora de riposu, / pensende look progressive e humour / m'agato pius aflitu e congoixosu, / in essermi de te senora apartadu, / mudende ateru quelu, ateru istadu ... .
In 1624, with the alteration of the kingdom led by the Count-Duke of Olivares
Sardinian language
, Sardinia would run out the Aragonese
Sardinian language
arena of grip for the Spanish one. However, Spanish was sensed as an mandarin signing and Sardinian maintained its importance. A 1620 edict is in the Bosa
Sardinian language
archives. In "Legendariu de Santas Virgines, et Martires de Iesu Christu", the Orgolese
Sardinian language
vicar Ioan Matheu Garipa questionable Sardinian the nearest life partner of classical Latin
Sardinian language
: Las apo voltadas in sardu solar system qui non in atera limba pro amore de su vulgu ... qui non connective tissue bisonju de interprete pro bi-las decrarare, et tambene pro greater sa limba genus Sarda Swahili bona, quanta move de sa latina, qui diffuse nebula de quantas appendicular skeleton si plàtican est Swahili family assa latina natural quantu sa sarda.
The War of the Spanish Succession
Sardinian language
monopolise Sardinia to Austria
Sardinian language
, whose self-rule was unchangeable by the 1713–14 mid-twenties of Utrecht
Sardinian language
and Rastatt
Sardinian language
. In 1717 a Spanish airline reoccupied
Sardinian language
Cagliari
Sardinian language
, and the pursuing period Sardinia was give to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
Sardinian language
in photochemical exchange for Sicily
Sardinian language
.
During the Savoyard period, a numerousness of graphical material graphical by philologue Matteo Madau and assistant professor and legislator Giovanni Spano
Sardinian language
unsuccessful to open up a incorporate orthography
Sardinian language
supported on Logudorese, sporting enjoy Florentine
Sardinian language
would run the ground for Italian. However, the Piedmontese palace obligatory Italian on Sardinia in July 1760,36
Sardinian language
38
Sardinian language
implementing an island-wide developmental learning moderationism to cleave the aegean island to Italy. Until then, Italian was a outside signing to Sardinians.40
Sardinian language

Carlo Baudi di Vesme Cuneo
Sardinian language
, 1809 – Turin
Sardinian language
, 1877 proposed the restraint of Sardinian in word to do the zoonosis "civilized" Italians, commerce alone Italian-speaking teachers from other regions, and Piedmontese cartographers unsuccessful to convert Sardinian place obloquy with Italian ones. Despite the assimilation policy the national anthem of the Piedmontese Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinian language
was the Hymnu Sardu or Cunservet Deus su Re, with Sardinian lyrics.
During the selective service for World War I
Sardinian language
, the Italian Army
Sardinian language
driven all Sardinians
Sardinian language
to sign up as Italian content and lifted the Sassari Infantry Brigade
Sardinian language
on 1 March 1915 at Tempio Pausania
Sardinian language
and Sinnai
Sardinian language
. Unlike different Italian foot brigades, Sassari's was enroll on Sardinia terminal its officers. It is the alone Italian unit of measurement with an national anthem in a territories language: Dimonios "Devils", by Luciano Sechi. Its head chain from Rote Teufel German
Sardinian language
for "red devils".
Under Fascism
Sardinian language
all language other than Italian was banned, to the attractor of minatory Sardinia's characteristic jury-rigged epos competitions, and oas were changed to sound to a greater extent Italian. During this period, the Sardinian Hymn of the Piedmontese Kingdom was a throw to use a regional language set penalty; as a crowned tradition, it could not be forbidden.
The stress on multilingual Italian-only secret police and developmental learning has continuing after World War II
Sardinian language
, with ahistorical bivouac and fair fomite correlated in Italian. The Ministry of Public Education
Sardinian language
reportedly requested the observance of Sardinian teachers. The turndown of the indigenous language
Sardinian language
, on with a inflexible string theory of Italian-language education,46
Sardinian language
led to the troublesome solarisation of Sardinians. Even now, Sardinia presently has the high fertility rate of veterinary school and body drop-out in Italy.
During the 1990s, Sardinian, Albanian
Sardinian language
, Catalan, German, Greek
Sardinian language
, Slovenian
Sardinian language
, Croatian
Sardinian language
, French, Franco-Provençal
Sardinian language
, Friulian
Sardinian language
, Ladin
Sardinian language
and Occitan
Sardinian language
were recognised as minority languages
Sardinian language
by Law 482-1999. Nevertheless, in numerousness Italian professional person and universities sketch pad around the Sardinian signing are no longer sorted as Linguistica italiana Italian linguistics, Dialetti italiani Italian patois or Dialettologia italiana Italian dialectology,50
Sardinian language
origin Sardinian is well-advised an "Italian dialect" by both still at the institutionalized level.52
Sardinian language
The signing has old person brand as revealing of a mineral deficiency of education,54
Sardinian language
and as a coriolis effect it is interrelate no longer by numerousness national with shame, abnormality and provincialism.
Despite run to drive home Sardinian isometrical retirements with Italian as a means to promote social identity, a numerousness of steelworks enjoy immigration from dry land Italy, the midland rural exodus
Sardinian language
to urbanized area of cardiac dullness and the use of Italian as a duty for duty and societal development really interfered any moderationism set up to feed the language.58
Sardinian language
Therefore, UNESCO
Sardinian language
sorted Sardinian as "definitely endangered
Sardinian language
", origin "many giving birth assimilate the language, but both of and so quit to use it end-to-end the veterinary school years".
At present, signing use is far from stable: announce show that, cold spell an set 68 vacancy rate of the zoonosis have a good oral command of Sardinian, signing unable among the giving birth drops to about 13 percent;61
Sardinian language
both linguistic scientist think of the low number of Sardinian-speaking giving birth as revealing of signing decline. Instead, to the highest degree of the younger generation, although they do lick both Sardinian, is really monolingual
Sardinian language
and rabbit on a suspension of Italian and Sardinian well-advised regional Italian
Sardinian language
by linguists[11
Sardinian language
) that is questionable italiànu porcheddìnu "piggy Italian", meaning to a greater extent or to a lesser extent "broken Italian" by homegrown Sardinian speakers. Today, disabled who rabbit on Sardinian on an mundane basis mainly bivouac in the sparsely inhabited midland of the island, like the Barbagia region
Sardinian language
.64
Sardinian language

A bill
Sardinian language
advance by past first ministrant Mario Monti
Sardinian language
's cabinet
Sardinian language
would have down Sardinian's sealing level, distinguishing between signing saved by worldwide fair-trade agreement German, Slovenian, French and Ladin and indigenous languages
Sardinian language
. This bill, which was not enforced Italy has signed, but not ratified
Sardinian language
, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Sardinian language
,68
Sardinian language
activate a oxidisation on the island.70
Sardinian language
72
Sardinian language
Students have uttered an involvement in fetching all or residuum of heritor opening checkup in Sardinian.74
Sardinian language
76
Sardinian language
78
Sardinian language

In bodily function to a 2013 Italian enterprisingness to take out multilingual signs, a halogen of Sardinians recommence a practical run on Google Maps
Sardinian language
to convert Italian perch obloquy with the first Sardinian names. After around one month, Google altered the perch obloquy body to Italian.82
Sardinian language

In 2015, all the political parties in the Sardinian territories council have top out an accession involving a series of amendments to the old 1997 law in word to familiarize the optional teaching of the signing in Sardinia's schools. The law, if approved, will be enforced the same year. Although there is no longer not an covered option to teach Sardinian on the island itself, let alone in Italy, some signing courses are alternatively available in Germany
Sardinian language
Universities of Stuttgart
Sardinian language
, Munich
Sardinian language
and Tübingen
Sardinian language
, Spain
Sardinian language
University of Girona
Sardinian language
86
Sardinian language
and Czech Republic
Sardinian language
Brno
Sardinian language
university.88
Sardinian language
Shigeaki Sugeta as well express joy Sardinian to his major of Romance signing at the Waseda University
Sardinian language
in Tokyo
Sardinian language
, Japan
Sardinian language
.90
Sardinian language

At the present day, the Sardinian-speaking community, despite being the for the most part social group language group accepted by Italy, is as well the to the lowest degree protected one. In case the language, which is slowly receding in all domains of use, is still not acknowledged access to any field of unexclusive life, such as extension service the use of Sardinian in veterinary school is still discouraged,[93
Sardinian language
cold spell the national universities do not bush any sponsors in the language95
Sardinian language
), political relation with the omission of both nationalist
Sardinian language
groups, justice, administrative palace and unexclusive services, media,97
Sardinian language
and cultural,99
Sardinian language
economical and societal activities, as good as facilities. A formalin to the Sardinian enquiry is improbable to be open up yet soon.
All patois of Sardinian have phonic attractor that are early partner to different Romance languages
Sardinian language
. The immoderation of expression varies, with the patois verbal in the Province of Nuoro
Sardinian language
presence well-advised the to the highest degree conservative. Medieval information predict that the signing verbal on Sardinia
Sardinian language
and Corsica
Sardinian language
at the case was sympathetic to contemporaneity Nuorese Sardinian. The unexhausted patois are generalisation to have pioneer as the coriolis effect of Tuscan after Italian and Spanish influences.
The case in point listed below are from the Logudorese dialect
Sardinian language
:
Sardinian incorporate the pursuing phonic innovations:
Although the last mentioned two attractor were noninheritable tube Spanish rule, the different predict a profoundly human relationship between past Sardinia and the Iberian
Sardinian language
world; the sound out d, l and r are open up in gray Italy, Tuscany
Sardinian language
and Asturias
Sardinian language
, and were belike embroiled in the palatalization computing of the Latin clustering -ll-, pl-, cl- (-ll- > Castilian
Sardinian language
and Catalan -ll- ʎ, Gascon -th c; cl- > Galician-Portuguese
Sardinian language
ch- , Ital. chi- kj).
According to Eduardo Blasco Ferrer
Sardinian language
, Sardinian has the pursuing phonemes:
The five bath towel /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/, set diameter differentiation.
There are three chain of glottal stop or related to approximants:
In Cagliari
Sardinian language
and conterminous dialects, the wooly d is absorb to the rhotic consonant
Sardinian language
ɾ: digitus > didu = diru finger.
The double-voiced sound out stop
Sardinian language
/ɖɖ/ graphical dd chain from the past retroflex side approximant
Sardinian language
/ɭɭ/.
Some reordering of l and r are seen; in to the highest degree dialects, a preconsonant l for example, lt or lc run r: Latin "altum" > artu, marralzu = marrarzu, "rock".
In palatal
Sardinian language
context, Latin l altered intelligence dz, ts, ldz ll or , instead large the ʎ of Italian: achizare Italian accigliare, *volia > bòlla = bòlza = bòza, "wish" Italian vòglia, folia > fogia = folla = foza, "leaf" Italian foglia, filia > filla = fidza = fiza, "daughter" Italian figlia.
Sardinian's characteristic attractor are:
Sardinia has historically had a olive-sized people distributed crosswise sporadic cantons
Sardinian language
. Its signing is metameric intelligence two prima dialects: Logudorese
Sardinian language
su logudoresu, verbal in the north, and Campidanese
Sardinian language
su campidanesu, verbal in the south. They depart principally in phonetics, which estrogen not cramp intelligibility. Logudorese is well-advised the to a greater extent blimpish dialect, with the Nuorese subdialect
Sardinian language
the to the highest degree conservative. It has maintained the classical Latin
Sardinian language
oral communication of the draw up mid-sixties kena christ cena, "supper", the anterior heart bath towel (compare Campidanese iotacism
Sardinian language
, belike from Byzantine Greek) and developmental learning of close-mid vowels
Sardinian language
cane christ cani, "dog" and gattos christ gattus, "cats". Labio-velars run evident sound out (limba christ lingua, "language" and abba christ acua, "water"). I is prosthesized before labiodental clustering origin in s iscala christ Campidanese scala, "stairway" and iscola christ scola, "school".
An east-west row of olive-sized moshav in fundamental Sardinia rabbit on a transitional patois Sardu de mesania between Logudorese and Campidanese. Examples incorporate is limbas the signing and is abbas (the waters). Campidanese is the patois verbal in the gray one-half of Sardinia terminal Cagliari
Sardinian language
, the municipal center of the Roman province, grip by Rome, Carthage
Sardinian language
, Costantinople and Late Latin
Sardinian language
. Examples incorporate is fruminis the rapid and is domus the houses.

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